Aurora : The Northern Lights in Mythology, History and Science

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Aurora : The Northern Lights in Mythology, History and Science file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Aurora : The Northern Lights in Mythology, History and Science book. Happy reading Aurora : The Northern Lights in Mythology, History and Science Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Aurora : The Northern Lights in Mythology, History and Science at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Aurora : The Northern Lights in Mythology, History and Science Pocket Guide.

The indigenous peoples of America and Canada have traditions related to the auroras. According to regional mythology, in Scandinavia, the Norse god of winter Ullr was said to have produced the Aurora Borealis to illuminate the longest nights of the year. One myth among the caribou hunter Dene people is that reindeer originated in the Aurora Borealis. Five examples of multiple simultaneous auroral observations from East Asia Korea, Japan, China have been identified in the last 2, years, occurring on the nights of January 31, ; October 6, ; July 30, ; March 8, ; and March 2, An important classical Roman report comes from Pliny the Elder, who wrote of the aurora in 77 CE, calling the lights a "chasma" and describing it as a "yawning" of the night sky, accompanied by something that looked like blood and fire falling to earth.

These poetic descriptions of the phenomenon belie the astrophysical origin of the aurora borealis and its southern twin, the aurora australis. David P. Stern and Mauricio Peredo. The Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere. The next scientific fact that is important in this investigation is that the aurora is not visible all over the polar region - instead, by keeping tabs on how often aurora was seen in various locations, scientists discovered that the aurora actually occurred in a mile radius ring or oval centered around not the North Pole or South Pole, but rather the geomagnetic pole.

Another surprising fact is the geomagnetic pole moves!! Today, the geomagnetic North Pole is moving approximately northwest at 40 km per year. The Earth is not a solid sphere. Deep at the center of the earth is the planet's core, thought to be composed of an iron alloy. Some regions of the core are molten, while in others the gradual cooling of the planet over millenia has allowed some iron to solidify out of the liquid alloy. Lighter portions of the alloy rise, heavier portions sink, which causes a roiling within the core similar to that in a pan of boiling water.

As the Earth rotates, Coriolis forces twist and shear these currents in the core, and the movement and rotation ultimately results in the Earth's electrical and magnetic fields, with the whole planet acting as a dynamo. Because the Earth is not a perfect sphere, and various regions of the planet's interior are likewise irregular, the currents in the core are unstable, which causes the movement in the geomagnetic pole. Determining the historical movements of the geomagnetic pole is part of the science of archaeomagnetism.

It was discovered that clay, when heated to a high temperature, acquires magnetism that parallels the magnetic field of the Earth. By testing this magnetism in objects which can also be dated by other methods, one may discern the direction of the geomagnetic pole at the date the clay item was last heated. As scientists have collected large numbers of data points in this way, a map has been developed showing the past peregrinations of the geomagnetic pole. Archaeomagnetic records show that the geomagnetic pole, and thus the auroral oval, moved away from Scandinavia and towards first northern Canada then Siberia during the Viking Age.

Movement of the auroral oval and the geomagnetic pole from AD to AD.

What Is the Classical Origin of the Aurora Borealis?

Despite the fact that the most frequent zone of auroral displays was moving away from Scandinavia, it is well-known that sunspot activity increases the intensity and range of the aurora, occasionally making them visible far to the south, even in Italy or southern Europe, as in when Galileo Galilei originally coined the term aurora borealis to describe what he thought resembled an early sunrise appearing in the north.

Since sunspots increase the energy of the solar wind, the auroras are especially vivid during solar storms and high periods of sunspot activity. However, there are good indications from sun-spot observations recorded back for millenia by Chinese observers that there may have been very few sunspots during the Viking Age ca.

We know that there have been times in history when the aurorae virtually disappeared due to lack of sunspot activity. For example:. The third factor in determining Viking Age opportunities to view the aurora is the consideration that the Northern Lights are visible only in the winter.

The northern light in history

Although specialized satellite imaging has clearly shown that auroral activity happens in the daytime as well as at night, for a human observer the aurora must have the darkness of night to be be visible. In the polar regions and in Scandinavia, summer has very long days, and near midsummer the sky is never actually dark. In the winter, the reverse is true and northerners experience long dark hours of the winter night.

One might think this would provide ideal aurora-watching weather, but the cold of northern winters, combined with Norse beliefs about elf-rides and the walking dead being especially prevalent menances near midwinter, may have discouraged Viking Age people from going out to marvel at any celestial lightshows that may have occurred. Taken together, these facts tend to indicate that the Vikings ca. Still, as Mistress Brynhildr points out, "Viking-Age Icelanders certainly saw geysers and steam and hot springs all the time, but they are barely mentioned in the sagas.

So 'not being mentioned' doesn't have to mean 'not present'". Aurora Photographs by Jan Curtis. The Aurora Page. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon. Hollander, Lee M. Poetic Edda. Austin: University of Texas Press. Buy this book today! Larrington, Carolyne, trans. The Poetic Edda. World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Larson, Laurence Marcellus, trans. New York: Twayne Publishers.

Harald Falck Ytter - Aurora - Floris Books

Email correspondence dated 4 March regarding the aurorae. Sturluson, Snorri. The Prose Edda. Anthony Faulkes.

Shop with confidence

Everyman Paperback Classics. When you transmit sensitive personal information to us, like credit card information, we offer the use of a secure connection to our servers. To the extent you select the secure connection method or your browser supports such functionality, all credit card account information that you supply is transmitted via secure encryption technology. We will provide notice if we become aware of any security breach that may affect any sensitive personal information pertaining to you that we have stored on our systems.

What is an aurora? - Michael Molina

Bonnier employees, agents, and contractors who have access to personally-identifying information are required to protect this information in a manner that is consistent with this Privacy Policy and may not use the information for any purpose other than to carry out the services they are performing for Bonnier. These individuals are bound by confidentiality obligations and may be subject to discipline, including termination and criminal prosecution, if they fail to meet these obligations.

Bonnier only collects personal information that is relevant to the purposes for which it will be used. Though we do take appropriate steps to review and update the information that we store to ensure that it is accurate, complete, and current, we also depend on you to update or correct your personal information when necessary. You may correct or delete any or all of the personal information you have provided to us at any time. Many of our websites provide means to review and update the personal information that you have provided on that website. To inquire about personally identifiable information that Bonnier has collected about you, or about other ways to correct factual errors in that information, please send us an e-mail at privacy bonniercorp.

Note: Do not use this email address to send questions about your subscription. To protect your privacy and security, we will take reasonable steps to help verify your identity before granting access or making corrections. We will decline to process requests where we cannot verify the identity of the requester. We may also decline to process requests that are automated, repetitive, systematic, or impractical, or that might jeopardize the privacy of others. In some limited circumstances, such as to resolve disputes, troubleshoot problems, and enforce our policies, we may retain some of information that you have requested us to remove.

Therefore, you should not expect that all of your personal information will be completely removed from our databases in response to your requests. We only use the information we collect for purposes consistent with this policy. If we propose to use your personal information for purposes beyond that explained in this policy, we will provide appropriate notice before doing so and we will provide you with the means to opt out of those uses.

We will not use your sensitive personal information for any purposes other than those described in this Policy unless we have obtained your consent. If you prefer not to receive e-mail communications from other companies, you may choose to remove yourself from any e-mail lists that we provide to third parties for marketing purposes by sending us an e-mail at emailoptout bonniercorp. You will still receive information from Bonnier and its various brands, but we will not share your address information with anyone else.

If you prefer not to receive postal communication from other companies, you may choose to remove yourself from any postal mailing lists that we provide to third parties for marketing purposes by sending us an e-mail at emailoptout bonniercorp. Box , Harlan, IA We only want to communicate with you if you want to hear from us. If you prefer not to be contacted at all, you may opt out of receiving any communications from us at any time by notifying us at emailoptout bonniercorp.

You may also notify us by sending mail to the following address:. In all requests, please tell us what communications you would like to opt out of, what means we have been using to contact you such as your e-mail or postal address , the date of your request, and a way to reach you in case we need to personally contact you in an effort to comply with your request.

We reserve the right to send you certain communications, such as technical alerts, without offering you the opportunity to opt out of receiving them. We take our Privacy Policy seriously and we regularly review our own compliance with this Policy. If you have any questions or concerns about this Policy, or if you think that we have used your personal information in a manner inconsistent with this Policy, please contact us at:.

If we receive a complaint from you, we will contact you in an attempt to address your concerns. If we are not able to resolve a complaint, we will participate in appropriate independent recourse mechanisms as necessary.

Bonnier may collect information such as the type of browser you use, your operating system, your IP address, the type of device you are using to access the site, and the domain name of your Internet Service Provider. This information, by itself, does not permit individual identification, meaning that you will remain anonymous. However, if you elect to provide us with personally-identifying information during your visit, that information may be linked to your IP address, or to your email address where we may have that on file through other Bonnier Corp.

When you visit our websites, we and our third-party partners send cookies — small, removable data files — to your computer. We use cookies to uniquely identify your browser, which allows us to enhance and personalize your online experience at Bonnier websites. For example, cookies allow us to recognize you when you return to a website and present relevant content to you when you visit. Most browsers are initially set up to accept cookies, but you can configure your browser to warn you when cookies are sent, or to refuse all cookies. Some of the features and services of Bonnier websites may not operate properly if your cookies are disabled.

Cookies, by themselves, do not provide us with any personally-identifying information. On our websites, we may also use tiny graphic images called pixel tags, web beacons, or clear gifs. These tiny images help us to analyze our users' online behavior and collect other data, such as page views or advertising responses.

  1. The Aurora Borealis and the Vikings;
  2. ISBN 13: 9780863150203.
  3. Auswirkungen der Familie auf die Bildungschancen der Kinder: Die Chancen(un)gleichheit (German Edition)!